MedGizmo - MedGizmo: Wearables and Diabetes (Part I)
23.02.2016, 09:45   MedGizmo

MedGizmo: Wearables and Diabetes (Part I)

With positive development of economics there is one trend that is observed globally – people LOVE TO ENJOY FOOD. Sometime this enjoyment goes the way out – it leads to obesity problems, which in turn may result in diabetes. As an example, a high-fat, high-carbohydrate, high-calorie American diet is very popular all over the world (that I personally witnessed in Europe, Middle East and Asia) has resulted in skyrocketing obesity. Although the latest CDC data shows that after the decades of rising rates, the number of US adults diagnosed with diabetes dropped from approximately 1.7 million cases in 2009 to 1.4 million in 2014 – this is still does not mean the end of the problem.

Look at the results of this research: Preventing type 2 diabetes developing in those at risk  by Sarah Kehoe, Strategic Design and Management, Fall 2015, Parsons New School for Design
Type 2 diabetes is the most common type of diabetes and is most prevalent in adults particularly those who are overweight or of a certain ethnicity. Type 2 diabetes also runs in families as a result of both lifestyle habits learnt and genetics. If one parent has Type 2 the risk of their child getting diabetes is 1 in 7 if diagnosed before age 50 and 1 in 13 if diagnosed after age 50.
 
The paper explains in  detail the problem and covers the topics:
  • Monitoring devices for pre-diabetics
  • Key insights for monitoring devices
  • Key insights for those at risk of diabetes
  • Key insights for dieting
 
Download the full report HERE

The first indication of the problems is prediabetes. CDC estimates that 86 million US adults—more than 1 of 3—had prediabetes in 2012. Prediabetes is a serious health condition that increases the risk of developing type 2 diabetes, heart disease, and stroke. Although 37% of US adults have prediabetes, only 11% of those with prediabetes are aware that they have it.

Here we come – the wearables emerge as one of the major tools for diabetes prevention, not to mention the other vital function – making the life of people less burdensome. In our series of posts, we attempt to cover some of the issues – providing brief information and links to the latest developments in wearables and applications for diabetes prevention and management. Note, that we do not claim that we cover all and everything – just pinpointing some factors and items that in our view are important.

Diabetes itself requires many treatment and everyday activities strategies. Those with diabetes are faced with the task of continuous monitoring and managing of huge number of lifestyle factors: food, sleep, physical activity, insulin level. And the most terrifying problem - uncertainty about possibility of a sudden blood sugar levels drop. So, here technology come with solutions that may relieve patients of many troubles and worries – IF they are willing to accept this technology (as it is shown on a previous graph – 79% never used a wearable).
And here, we see one of the major goals of MedGizmo – educating and proliferation of positive knowledge and attitude towards wearables.

From the systematic point of view diabetes wearables may be classified into these groups:
Blood Sugar and Nutrition Tracking Apps
These are most software allocations for smartphones/tablets make tracking easier; some are specifically designed for managing diabetes.
Fitness Trackers
For people with diabetes they help to control the amount of physical activity needed.
Continuous Glucose Monitors (CGM)
Automatically test blood sugar level throughout the day, send the results wirelessly to a small portable monitor that you can carry with you or even straight to their doctor’s office.  As a rule, it is accomplished through the application of a biosensor.
Automatic injectors
Applied on the body and inject insulin when it is required
Reminder Apps
Installed on phone/tablet with reminders to check blood sugar, administer medications, attend a doctor’s appointment, etc.

 Let us start with gadgets which painlessly measure blood glucose level.
The new analytical technologies and developments in diabetes treatment resulted in introduction of new devices that help to resolve one of the most annoying problems in the blood glucose testing - pricking of the fingers to draw blood for daily monitoring. Non-invasive technologies include near IR detection, ultrasound and dielectric spectroscopy. Most of the non-invasive methods under development are CGM methods and offer the advantage of providing additional information to the subject between the conventional finger stick, blood glucose measurements and over time periods where no finger stick measurements are available (i.e. while the subject is sleeping).

GlucoTrack®
For Type 2 diabetics and pre-diabetics GlucoTrack® is a non-invasive device for measuring glucose levels of people with Type 2 diabetes or at risk of developing diabetes that does not require pricking of the fingers to draw blood for daily glucose monitoring.  GlucoTrack® features a small sensor that clips to the earlobe and measures the wearer's glucose level by taking measurements using three technologies. The measured signals are analyzed using a proprietary algorithm and displayed on a small handheld device, the size of a mobile phone. The derived glucose measurement is also announced verbally, facilitating use by elderly and vision-impaired diabetes patients.
GlucoTrack uses ultrasonic, electromagnetic and thermal technologies to non-invasively measure glucose levels in the body
The GlucoTrack® Model DF-F is expected to begin clinical trials for United States FDA approval in early 2016, subject to approval of Integrity Applications' clinical trials protocol by the FDA.
GlucoTrack® Model DF-F obtained a CE Mark approval in Europe (June 2013) and final CE Mark approval in March 2014 and recently received approval to market the device also to pre-diabetics.
GlucoTrack is battery-operated and includes a Main Unit (MU), which contains display and control features, as well as transmitter, receiver and processor, and a Personal Ear Clip (PEC), which is clipped to the earlobe and contains sensors and calibration electronics. The device is small, light and easy to use and handle.  The Main Unit can be shared by up to three users (in model DF-F), although each user requires his/her own (individually calibrated) PEC.  The device includes a USB port for data downloading (enables off-line analysis), as well as battery recharging.

Glucowise™

Glucowise™ is a non-invasive, 100% pain-free device that makes traditional blood sampling a thing of the past. This non-invasive, wireless device will take an accurate blood glucose reading every few seconds – as often as the user requires. It is positioned to gently squeeze the skin between the thumb and forefinger or the earlobe to measure blood glucose levels. The device then displays the reading in real-time on the screen.
Our App and Smart Cloud technology delivers personalized advice and alerts, helping you to fully manage your condition. Intelligent analytics will use your current and historical data to calculate and forecast immediate trends in your blood glucose levels, allowing you to adjust your food or medication intake according to your activities or how you are feeling.
Glucowise™ will offer unlimited testing without the need for costly consumables, so you can test as often as you like without having to worry about the cost or pain.
The compact design will offer you high levels of privacy. It will take no more than 10 seconds to provide a simple, fast and highly discrete testing experience – anytime, anywhere. The data can then sent wirelessly and securely to your smartphone or tablet.
GlucoWise™ is currently in development and will be available to purchase once clinical trials are completed. We expect to start taking pre-orders in late 2016.

Glucosense
Glucosense Diagnostics is developing a device to directly monitor blood glucose levels without the need to penetrate the skin. This novel, non-invasive device could transform the lives of millions of people living with diabetes, ending the need for daily pain and mess from finger-prick testing or the use of monitoring implants – providing a simpler and potentially cheaper alternative for healthcare providers.
The device is under development and not currently available for sale. Glucosense’s proprietary, non-invasive technology will be configured as a small, portable device using a low-powered laser sensor to measure blood glucose levels within 30 seconds. It has the potential to provide a simpler, pain-free alternative to finger-pricking and implants. The technology’s continuous monitoring capabilities would make it ideal for use as a wearable device, providing timely alerts if intervention is needed – even while sleeping.

NovioSense
By reimagining the finger strip technology into a new form our non-invasive device will allow patients to monitor glucose levels on demand non-invasively and unobtrusively.
The eye has long been termed the window on the soul, in fact NovioSense has discovered that the eye provides a diagnostic window to many critical health parameters.  Using this knowledge we have developed a unique ophthalmic insert for Type 1 diabetics.
NovioSense is a small and flexible spring like device measuring less than 2 cm in length and 1.5mm in diameter. The whole device is coated with a soft hydrogel layer. The flexible form factor allows the device to bend to conform to the surface of the lower eye lid where the sensor is placed.  Utilising state of the art low-power and highly sensitive ASIC technology developed by Fraunhofer IMS together with NovioSense the device can measure minute changes in glucose levels in the tears that are representative of blood glucose levels.
The tear fluid provides a rich source of biomarkers previously untapped for use in in-vitro diagnostics. The flow of tear fluid across the eye constantly refreshes the environment around the eye, consequently the tear film is a rich source of real time data that can be related back to key diagnostic markers such as glucose. By placing our micro coil in the conjunctival fornix a loose fold of skin between the lower eye and the eyelid, we can access a continuous flow of biomarkers as they wash across the surface of the eye and allowing us to monitor key biomarkers in real time.

Read the news item
Glucose Sensing Contact Lenses – Google[x]’s Ambitious Venture into Diabetes


A sweat sensor to monitor your health

Fully integrated wearable sensor arrays for multiplexed in situ perspiration analysis
Reported in the Jan. 28 issue of the journal Nature, is the first fully integrated electronic system that can provide continuous, non-invasive monitoring of multiple biochemicals in sweat.
The advance opens doors to wearable devices that alert users to health problems such as fatigue, dehydration and dangerously high body temperatures.
The new device was developed by a team led by Berkeley's Ali Javey and is completely non-invasive. It can detect the levels of sodium, potassium and lactate (which is the same as the lactic acid produced by active muscles) as well as glucose in a person's sweat. It also measures skin temperature.
"The more glucose or lactate in your sweat, for example, the more electrical current is generated at the sensor surface, and the more sodium and potassium, the larger the voltage," explain team-members Wei Gao and Sam Emaminejad at Berkeley.
“Human sweat contains physiologically rich information, thus making it an attractive body fluid for non-invasive wearable sensors,” said study principal investigator Ali Javey, a UC Berkeley professor of electrical engineering and computer sciences. “However, sweat is complex and it is necessary to measure multiple targets to extract meaningful information about your state of health. In this regard, we have developed a fully integrated system that simultaneously and selectively measures multiple sweat analytes, and wirelessly transmits the processed data to a smartphone. Our work presents a technology platform for sweat-based health monitors.”




SCiO: Explore More!
A Pocket Molecular Sensor For All!
SCiO. It is the world's first affordable molecular sensor that fits in the palm of your hand. SCiO is a tiny spectrometer and allows you to get instant relevant information about the chemical make-up of just about anything around you, sent directly to your smartphone.
SCiO is primarily aimed at helping those with conditions such as diabetes or cardiovascular diseases keep a close eye on their diet.


Lumee Oxygen Sensing System™

This is a single sensor that can continuously monitor a variety of body chemistry stats, including glucose and oxygen levels, heart rate, respiration and more, and securely transmit the data anywhere via a smartphone app.
Physically, it's reminiscent of the Abbott Libre glucose flash technology, that includes a small 3-5 milimeter sensor adhered to the skin, with readings taken by the user by passing a separate optical reader over it to pick up the fluorescent signal.
Designed to report reliable tissue oxygen levels at various regions of interest, both acutely and long-term. Potential applications include monitoring of compromised tissue is beneficial, such as peripheral artery disease that results in narrowing of blood vessels and reduced blood flow to the lower limbs; chronic wounds (diabetic ulcers, pressure sores) that do not heal properly; and reconstructive surgery.

This concludes the first Post – Read the next post
Diabetes Applications

 
23.02.2016, 09:45   MedGizmo
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